Cause and Effect

One of the earliest developing skills and interests of a child comes with cause and effect. We talked about some important toys that assist in children’s development previously, but wanted to delve a little deeper into these toys that have all the “bells and whistles” that may be so interesting to your child. These are toys such as ball poppers,
door poppers, and anything that makes noise or does something “exciting” once a button or switch is activated. It has been noted that these toys decrease interaction between parents and children since the kids can play with them on their own. But we have some ideas on how to make these toys more interactive and reciprocal.

cause-and-effectIn December 2015, a study was published that cautioned parents against the use of cause and effect toys for language development. The study (from JAMA Pediatrics) was conducted on 26 families with children ages 10 months to 16 months. The families received a variety of toys, which included a set of noisy, flashy cause and effect toys; wooden puzzles, shape sorters, and blocks; and board books with basic concepts. Results yielded information that suggested books were the most interactive and language-rich activity, followed by traditional toys (puzzles/blocks). Least interactive were the cause and effect toys. As SLPs, we are definite advocates of book reading at a very early age – start right away! Books have the power to teach concepts, character and story development, sequencing, and so much more. What a great way to get started on early literacy! But we’re not always able to sit with our kids and read all day. Playing with a variety of toys is great too. Traditional toys definitely teach great skills, including problem solving, turn-taking, fine motor development, and others. So what about those noisy, flashy toys that you already own and your child absolutely adores? Here are some suggestions for more interactive play:

  1. Turn taking: facilitate a back and forth play with a turn taking routine. You can use language, like “your turn!” and “my turn!” to start this concept early. Of course, with the little ones, it doesn’t have to be such a rigid back and forth; instead, be playful!
  2. Eye contact: wait for your child to look at you before turning the toy back on (most of them have an on/off switch that you can manipulate and control). Eye contact often indicates some form of communication and an awareness that you can give them what they want – another turn!
  3. Requesting: to work on early-developing sounds, you can practice “ah” (for “on!”) and “m” (for “more”).
  4. Problem solving: give your child wait time and see if they can figure out how to operate a button/switch or to pick something out (I’ve seen kids exhibit very nice fine motor skills this way).
  5. Narration: depending on the toy, you may be able to talk about an object. For example, in a toy that has different animals you might be able to say where they live, what sounds they make, what they look like, and other attributes.
  6. Increased utterance length: once your child has begun to use one word at a time, you can model phrases: “want more” “ball in” “go ball” “go in.” Typically, children begin to combine two words around 18 months.
  7. Prepositions: in, on, under – all these represent locations that are likely possible to talk about with any toy.

The aforementioned suggestions will take some degree of modeling. Don’t just expect your child to do it independently. Some cues include gestures (like pointing), verbal cues (like short, easy directions – “ball in”), and hand over hand assistance. You may need to work hard to make a cause and effect toy be more effective for language development, but the most important thing to remember is to have fun! They’ll only be this little for so long. Enjoy!



After the big #dressgate a few weeks back, I got to thinking about perceptions and a favorite old social language concept: perspective taking.

What is perspective taking? In Michelle Garcia Winner’s Social Thinking terms, perspective taking is when you have a thought about another person (“I can’t believe she thinks that dress is white and gold!”) and then realize that others have thoughts about us too (“She is crazy if she thinks that dress is black and blue!”). To further think of this concept we must be able to understand how others perceive things and realize that our opinions are not always the opinions of others but that we are always formulating thoughts about those around us whether we realize it or not. Was the dress black and blue or white and gold? Does it really matter? Are we so freaked out by the reality that others can see something differently than we can? And actually in this case, science can explain a lot to us.

duck rabbit 3_18_15This isn’t a new concept, however. Take one of my favorite books: Duck, Rabbit! Do you see a duck? Or maybe it’s a rabbit. But does it matter? The point is that we are able to defend our choices, explain them, and accept that others may not always agree with us. You have a thought and I have a thought – it’s what we do with those thoughts that enables us to form and maintain relationships with others. Often, our kids cannot understand this concept. They usually think because they like Minecraft or learning about black holes that others must like the same. We all find joy in a variety of topics, no matter who we are. And this is the concept I work on with my kids. If you can defend your opinions and accept the concept of agreeing to disagree, then I certainly feel successful. Furthermore, if you can realize that you are not the only one with thoughts (and that others will be perceiving you a certain way based on what you say or do) then we are definitely making progress.

Black and blue, white and gold, duck or rabbit. I can see the argument for any. Let’s work on acceptance of the argument and explaining what YOU think. We could all use a little flexible thinking.

Photos originally from and