5 Steps Towards Better Behavior


Around this time of year, it is very common for kids’ behavior to take a nosedive. If you stop to think about it, we place a lot of demands on children during the holidays: many changes to the schedule, lots of extra stimulation and excitement, pressure to engage with friends and family members, and time away from teachers, therapists and classmates. It is easy for the whole routine get thrown out the window!  This can be stressful for any child (or any adult…am I right?!) but it is THAT much harder for our little ones who have sensory, language, cognitive or social deficits.

Recently, I’ve been finding myself having conversations with parents about behavior challenges, and I just happen to be living with a feisty little two year old who sometimes gives me a run for my money! I’ve come up with five small changes that yield big results:


It is our instinct to tell our children “No!” a lot—“Don’t touch that,” “No climbing,” “Stop throwing,” etc.  For many children, a natural reaction to hearing “no” is to dig their heels in.  Instead, try giving a positive direction. For example, instead of “Stop throwing,” say “Put the blocks in here.” or instead of “Don’t touch that,” try asking “Can you hold this for me instead?


Similarly, it is really important to be specific with children. As adults, we naturally read between the lines and make inferences about what behavior is expected of us, but this can be really challenging for kids. I constantly overhear parents saying vague things like “Listen!” or “No, Ma’am” or “Behave!” When you think about it, what does any of that even really mean?  When we’re at someone else’s house (usually someone who doesn’t have small children), I tend to follow my daughter around saying “Don’t touch.”…”Nope”….”No Touch.”…”No No.” Why am I not giving her something that she CAN touch?  Be specific about what you want your child to be doing right now. Instead of saying “You need to listen,” try something like “I want you to stand next to me and hold my hand while we wait in line.” This way, you are setting your child up for success, and reducing his chances of making another wrong choice.


For some reason, we tend to ask children a lot of YES-NO style questions when we really just want them to follow instructions.  As a therapist and as a parent, I catch my self asking “Do you want to….?” or “Can you ……?” And what do you think is an easy answer to those questions? “NO!” Then what?! I try my best to offer choices as much as possible. Instead of saying “Can you clean up the blocks for me?” I will say “Which color block should we clean up first?” Offering choices not only reduces the likelihood of getting a refusal, but also makes the child feel like he is in control.


Children often don’t have the ability to think ahead, especially when in the midst of a power struggle with Mom.  It is easy for them to get so focused on the item or frustration at hand, that they forget about all other things. Remind your child about the things that might motivate her to have better behavior. Walk her through what will happen if she follows the direction now: “First, we are going to put on our shoes, and then we will get in the car, and when we get to the school, you get to play with the sand table!


It’s sad but true—tantrums happen, from all kids. This time of year, they seem to happen even more! I like to think of temper tantrums like a hurricane; You can see them coming, and there is not a whole lot you can do to stop them. When a hurricane strikes, we don’t try to rebuild homes while the storm is still happening, right? It is only once the hurricane has passed that we can start to really help. Tantrums are the same way!

Did you know that children under five do not have the emotional maturity or cognitive skills to logically talk themselves out of a tantrum? At a certain point, it is so beyond their control that the child might not be able to even identify what sparked the tantrum in the first place.  The best strategy for tantrums is to be present, letting the child know that you are here to listen, and avoid telling him to stop. Avoid walking away or getting angry yourself. Instead, take a deep breath and wait for the child to start to calm down. Once calmer, validate their feelings by stating what you see. (ex: “I am so sorry that you are disappointed.” or “You are really mad that it is time to go home.”). Once you’ve opened the door of communication, you can start to explain why or give instructions. It’s not about giving into what the child wants, but more about teaching her that communicating will get her further than just throwing a fit.

I always preface my advice with “These strategies work MOST of the time.” 😊  Sometimes, bad behavior is unavoidable, and as therapists, caregivers, and parents, we need to give our selves some grace when we have those less-than-stellar moments. The most important thing is that we challenge ourselves to continue to work with our kids, and never give up on teaching them. Putting in the effort to really manage behavior now will result in decreased frustration, more constructive interactions, and most importantly, more time for fun! Here’s to a calm and joyful holiday season with our kids.


Elizabeth Clark McKenzie, MS, CCC-SLP<<<<


Gifts that Give Hope

It is hard to believe it is already November, and the holiday season is upon us! In this day and age, our kids are bombarded with materialism. It can be challenging to instill a sense of gratitude and generosity when there is such an emphasis on “stuff” – especially during the holidays.

Gifts that Give Hope Logo

Skill Builders is very proud to be sponsoring the Children’s Fair at a fantastic event called  Gifts That Give Hope, which will take place on Saturday, December 9th at Discovery Elementary School in Arlington. GTGH is an alternative gift fair that promotes meaningful gift giving, and raises awareness of both local and global areas of need. Shoppers meet and learn about a variety of non-profit organizations, make a donation to organization(s) of their choice in honor of a friend or loved one, and receive a card to present as a gift. Much more meaningful than a candle or scarf!

Donating money can be very abstract for children to understand, so GTGH also offers a Children’s Fair, which aims to make donations more concrete and tangible. Children can shop a variety of items, all which cost $5, and purchase them for someone in need. Examples of these items include:

  • A pack of diapers for a newborn in need
  • A pair of socks for a homeless man or woman
  • A gift for a child in need to put under the tree for his or her parent
  • A board book for a child with special needs
  • School supplies for an orphan in Haiti
  • Dog treats for dogs in an animal shelter
  • ….and more!

As you can see, there is a variety of causes, and the idea is that kids choose gifts that speak to them. This is a wonderful way to introduce the concept of charitable giving to even the youngest of kiddos!

To kick off the countdown to the big event, we are promoting a Kindness Challenge-complete 30 acts of kindness in 30 days! We are challenging all of our families to join the movement. What better way to get in the holiday spirit than teach our kids to think of others?

Here is our Kindness Challenge Calendar, with a suggestion for each day. You can use our ideas, or come up with your own kind acts! Be sure to post pictures on social media using #NovaKindKids so that we can see your family in action. 🙂

Kindness Calendar

Join us as we spread a little kindness throughout our community!

For more information on Gifts that Give Hope, contact Children’s Fair Director Elizabeth McKenzie at elizabethm@skillbuildersllc.com.




Have you ever caught yourself drumming your fingers on your desk, or clicking the top of your pen to open and close it repeatedly during a long meeting or just a day at the office? How about bouncing your leg up and down repeatedly or squeezing a stress ball on your desk to help you refocus?

These are all examples of fidgeting! The majority of people fidget on a day to day basis as a way to relieve stress and help focus on the task at hand. Fidgeting provides our bodies with extra motoric activity and sensory input that we may need to help our minds focus and attend. As adults, we have had extensive practice with years of school, lectures, and meetings to develop fidgeting strategies that help us attend without causing more of a distraction to ourselves or others.

Children, on the other hand, may need some guidance in this area. Many kids require additional sensory and motor input to help them attend, yet they don’t always know effective and appropriate ways to satisfy their fidgeting needs.


Finding the perfect fidget is tough! This is mainly because fidgets are not “one size fits all”! Finding a fidget that works for your child is going to take some trial and error. With all the different options out there, it can be tough to know where to begin!

A few of the most popular fidget toys at the moment include:

Stress Ball Picture
Neliblu Pull and Stretch Squeeze Stress Ball and Puffer Ball Assortment (Amazon)
  • Stress Balls/Squeeze Balls
    • Pros: These are great because they provide calming proprioceptive input to the hands, which can lead to improved modulation and the ability to “reset” the body to a calm and attentive state when needed.
    • Cons: They can be hard to keep track of! Since it is a ball, kids may be tempted to toss them around with their classmates, causing a distraction. If this is the fidget that works best for your child, teach her to keep the ball in her pocket, or use a safety pin to attach a piece of string or yarn and attach the other end to your child’s belt loop, so it stays with them at all times.


Fidget Spinner Toy
Anti-Stress Spinner (Amazon)
  • Fidget Spinners
    • Pros: These provide consistent motoric activity for the fingers, are light-weight, and can easily fit in a pocket or cubby.
    • Cons: Spinners can be visually distracting, which may take away from your child’s ability to visually attend to the task. Also, because of their popularity, they can be distracting to other children in the classroom.


Tangle Toys
Tangle Jr. Brain Tools- Combo Pack (Amazon)
  • Tangle Toys
    • Pros: Children can twist these toys in several different ways, providing a variety of motoric activity. These can also be worn around the wrist for safe-keeping.
    • Cons: These toys can snap apart and parts can get lost, or they can be a choking hazard for children who tend to put items in their mouth



Fidget Cubes
Fidgy Fidge Fidget Cube (Amazon)
  • Fidget Cubes:
    • Pros: Like tangly toys, fidget cubes provide a variety of motoric actions for children, as there is something different on each side. For children with good finger dexterity, they do not require visual attention to the toy itself.
    • Cons: For children who have limited finger dexterity, fidget cubes may require more visual attention than other fidget toys. Fidget cubes also tend to be more expensive than other fidget toys, and although they can fit in a pocket, they are bulky and can be uncomfortable for our more tactilely defensive kids.



When searching for a fidget toy for your child, the main goal is to find a one that will provide additional sensory and motor activity, without causing more distraction. When searching for the right fit, it’s important to:

  1. Try different fidgets in different settings: in school, in the car, at the doctor’s office, etc. Your child may benefit from different fidgets in different settings, as external sensory input your child is already receiving varies across environments and activities.
  2. Talk to your child about what he likes best. Make sure it’s something he is able to use, interested in using, and doesn’t make him feel different from their peers in a negative way.
  3. Consult with your child’s occupational therapist and teacher about options for fidget toys and which ones might work best for your child, based on needs.
  4. Be open to changing fidget toys from time to time – like most things, children may out-grow their fidget toys and may need new options as they grow and develop skills.

As always, we at Skill Builders are happy to help! If you have any questions about your child’s fidgeting needs, please contact Cassie at cassie@skillbuildersllc.com.


-Cassie Hawkins, MS, OTR/L



We’ve been BUSY this month here at Skill Builders. Twice a year, we conduct screenings at local preschools. Screenings are used to determine whether or not a child presents within the average range, as compared to same-aged children. We like to think of screenings as a way of catching kids before they fall. Identifying potential areas of weakness or delays early on can help start the intervention process sooner, rather than waiting until academic or social problems arise. A screening is not a formal assessment, but a tool used to identify whether a formal evaluation is needed. Screenings are an important part of well-child health care, and can be a valuable tool for both parents and teachers

So what is a screening?

Prior to the screening, we collect a brief case history form from the parents that alert us to any pertinent medical history or diagnoses, as well as any previous therapy services. This form also allows for parents to express concerns or ask questions so we can take an extra look at certain skill areas.  

Additionally, we often collect a short questionnaire from the child’s classroom teacher to get an idea of how the child presents in class, as well as any areas of concern that the teacher might have. 

Each screening takes approximately 15-20 minutes. Clinicians will often pull children in groups of 2-3 in order to make them more comfortable. We use a combination of standardized assessment tools, as well as our own clinical observations as we engage the children in tasks that showcase various skills. The activities are play-based and fun, and our goal is for the children to perceive the experience as just “playing with a new teacher”! 🙂

After the screening is over, the clinician will write up a short report to summarize the findings. If areas of concern are identified, a formal evaluation may be recommended. Sometimes, if a skill area appears “on the cusp”, we recommend that a child’s skills be monitored, and re-screened in 6 months. If all looks age-appropriate, we recommend that children still participate in screenings once a year until they reach elementary school. At Skill Builders, we offer the option of scheduling a brief phone call with the screening therapist to ensure parents understand the results, and to address any additional questions. 

Skill Builders offers three different types of screenings:

1.       Hearing Screening

A Pure Tone Test is a “pass/fail” test that determines if a child can detect a range of frequencies in each ear. If the child passes, it is presumed that there is no hearing loss. If the child is not able to detect one or more frequencies, a comprehensive evaluation conducted by an audiologist is required. If a child is not cooperative, or does not appear to understand the task, we may recommend that he have a repeat hearing screening at his pediatrician’s office.

2.       Speech and Language Screening


*Oral Motor Skills

*Expressive Language

*Receptive Language

*Auditory Processing



*Pragmatic/Social Languag

3.       Occupational Therapy Screening

*Fine Motor

*Pre-Writing Skill Development

*Visual Perceptual Skills

*Sensory-Motor Processing


*Bilateral Coordination

*Frustration Tolerance

*Body Awareness

*Visual Attention

We love doing screenings because it allows us private practice clinicians a glimpse into classroom life, and it gives us a good refresher of what typical development looks like. Skill Builders enjoys partnering with area schools and parents to promote early identification and intervention in important areas of development. 

If your child’s preschool is interested in offering screenings, please contact Cari Syron at cari@skillbuildersllc.com.


-Elizabeth Clark McKenzie, MS, CCC-SLP

Graduate Student Internships

The school year has started and around here, that means a fresh batch of graduate student interns! As a reputable private practice in the area, Skill Builders feels honored to be trusted as an internship site for many prestigious universities including George Washington University, James Madison University, Gallaudet University, and Northeastern University. As our internship program has grown, we’ve made our selection process competitive and thorough to ensure that we are hosting the best of the best!

We like to think that our interns are fortunate to get to experience a practice like ours, and we know that Skill Builders offers a rigorous and unique experience. But as a parent, what’s in it for you?

Here are 6 reasons why having a graduate student on board is a wonderful thing!

   1. Students work their tails off! 

Students are eager to please, and are working hard to earn a good grade, as well as a good recommendation for future employment. They go the extra mile to plan creative activities and prepare fun, individualized materials for each client. This means your child gets to reap the benefits of that!

     2.  Your therapist works harder!

I don’t know about you, but when I have an audience, I tend to make sure that I am putting my best foot forward. I want to make sure my interns get to see all the tricks up my sleeve! Having to explain the rationale and process behind each technique really challenges me to think critically about my caseload, and helps solidify my own understanding of the approaches that I am using. Interns frequently present me with tough questions, so I really need to be extra prepared and know my stuff. This makes ME a better clinician too!

      3.  A fresh face!

It is amazing what a fresh face and a different personality can add to the mix! I find that having an intern can really shake things up- in a good way! For many of my clients, it is essential that they learn to generalize skills to use with less familiar adults, and so having a new person in the room really lends itself to carry-over. Interns are also often “young and hip”, and they bring a fun energy to our sessions. (They also seem to know about all the latest cool pop-culture references…unlike some of us old folks!)

   4. Up to date information!

Interns keep us “in the know” about all the latest research and developments in our field. We love hearing about what students are learning in class, and every semester, I find myself learning something new. Who says that you can’t teach an old dog new tricks? 😊

   5. Two for the price of one!

I get excited when I have an intern, because there are certain activities that are better executed with a third person in the room. I can prep my students before the session to help create situations for learning opportunities, and use them to strategically sabotage or alter a game to allow for application of specific skills. I also love having a third person to work on conversational and social skills! These are situations that I often can’t create in the one-on-one environment. Additionally, it is pretty darn helpful to have an extra set of hands helping with set up, data collection, and clean up- this means more efficient sessions, which means more time directly focused on my client.

   6. Sending better therapists out into the world!

At one point, we were all interns! There is no way that I would be the therapist that I am without the guidance, mentorship, and support of phenomenal supervisors who really poured into me when I was a student. It is both a duty and a privilege to get to return the favor to the next generation of therapists. We hope that by providing a challenging and intensive experience at Skill Builders, our students will enter the work force more prepared, and with a passion for providing high quality services.


So if you notice a few new faces around our office- fear not! It is our goal that our internship program will only enhance the therapy process. We greatly appreciate how welcoming Skill Builders families are to the students who come through our doors. It is because of you that we have become such a popular internship site!

For more information about our internship program, contact Michael Lemieux, Skill Builders’ Internship Coordinator. (Michael@skillbuildersllc.com)


Fall 2017 Graduate Interns


-Elizabeth Clark McKenzie, MS, CCC-SLP


Baby Talk!

I love working with babies and toddlers. It is amazing the amount of learning and change that occurs in just three short years!  Parents often ask me what they can do to help encourage their child’s speech and language skills along, and over the years, I’ve developed this list of skill areas to focus on:




  1. Playing with Sound

Infants begin exploring their mouth and playing with vocalizations at a very early age. Initially, we see babies “coo” with mostly vowel sounds, and later, this evolves into “babbling” with consonant sounds. Rather than focusing on specific vocabulary words, feel free to just play with sounds around your baby. Those “oohs,” “ahhs,” and “shhh” sounds you are making will encourage your baby to do the same. Make sound effects, blow raspberries, and sing a silly string of sounds. Show your baby that making sounds is fun!



  1. Vocalization on Command

Around the same time that babies start to babble, they figure out that they can control the sounds that they make. They start to understand the back and forth dynamic of communication, and you might notice that your baby starts to “talk back” when spoken to. You can encourage this by leaving ample pauses in your interactions to allow your baby to vocalize. I call these “windows of opportunity.” As you are playing, be sure to periodically provide windows in order to give your child a chance to chime in. You can also try waiting for a vocalization before handing your child a desired toy or snack. Don’t worry about the specific sound at this point—just wait for your baby to vocalize, and then reinforce by promptly handing over the item.



  1. Anticipation

Once your baby starts engaging more with you, he will start to figure out that language can be predictable. He will start to anticipate when you are going to say something. The best examples are “Ready Set GO” and “Peek-a-BOO.” Try leaving a long pause after “Peek….a…..”.  Wait for your child to vocalize before you say “Boo!”



  1. Bombardment

As your child starts to understand how to control her vocalizations, she will begin to imitate sounds and words that you say. The best way to encourage this is to provide repeated models of the same target, without a lot of extra “fluff.” For example, while building with blocks, simply model the word “on” each time you stack a block on the tower. While it might be your instinct to narrate every little detail (“Watch mommy put the blue block on top of the yellow block!”), your baby will actually be more likely to imitate if you give him repeated opportunities to attempt the same sounds. This is also an easy thing to do with books! Instead of reading the actual words on the page, pick a word to say, or an object to point out, on each page.


Brown Bear Brown Bear by Eric Carle

5.  Predictable Sequences

Children love predictability! As you are playing, create predictable sequences with language that is appropriate to the context. For example, while playing with a slide, model “Up, Up, Up, Up, Weeeeeeeeee, Down!” as your child (or a doll!) climbs up the ladder and slides down. This is also great to do in books! Choose books that say the same word or phrase on each page. (ex: We’re Going on a Bear Hunt by Michael Rosen and Helen Oxenbury or Brown Bear Brown Bear by Eric Carle)



  1. Verbal Requesting

Once your child has a few words, you can start to encourage him to use these words to request. Place objects on high shelves or in containers that he can’t open himself. Wait to perform a desired action or give a desired object until he verbalizes. We naturally tend to teach kids the names of things (nouns) first, but I actually recommend that we teach a “core vocabulary” of action words first. These are words that can be applied in many contexts. For example, if I teach my child the word “eat,” that can apply to many different things: “eat apple”,”eat noodle”, “more eat”,”mommy eat”, “all done eat”, etc.  If I teach my child the word “cracker”, he can request and label a cracker….and that is about it! By teaching words that can be used in a variety of contexts, we are give our child the advantage of more opportunities in a day to use that word successfully.



  1. Carrier Phrases

After your little one develops a sizeable repertoire of words, she will start to string words together, and soon after that, use two-word phrases. You can encourage this by modeling “carrier phrases.” Take one word and pair it with many different words:

With a noun: “ball in,” “roll ball,” “kick ball,” “my ball,” “ball all gone,” “blue ball,” “big ball,” “ball go,” etc.

With a verb: “open door,” “open mouth,” “open eyes,” “mommy open,” “open please,” “don’t open,” etc.

With a preposition: “foot in,” “in house,” “mommy in,” “ball in,” “in again,” “not in,” etc.

With an adjective: “big house,” “big truck,” “big bite,” “too big,” “not big,” etc.



  1. Expansion

Now the fun begins! Once your toddler is putting two, three or even four words together, now is the time for expansion! When he makes a comment, add one-to-two words and throw it back to him. For example, if he says “Firetruck!”, you can say “Red firetruck!” or “Firetruck go fast!” You can also use this to model more complete sentences. For example, if he says “Dog run!”, you could say “The dog is running!”



  1. Connection

As all of these wonderful speech and language skills are coming together, your child will start to make connections between different concepts. You can help her with this by commenting on the things she says. For instance, if she points out an ice cream shop, you might remind her that she ate ice cream at the beach last week. This will foster conversational skills, as well as help solidify concepts such as categorization, and comparing, and contrasting.



  1. Conversation

As your child approaches the age of three, you will see that he is starting to sound more and more like a little person! Move away from “yes-no” questions, and start asking “what,” “who,” “where,” “when,” “how,” and “why?”. Try to keep your child talking about the same topic for at least three-to-four exchanges before moving on. For example, instead of asking “Did you have fun at school today?”, try asking “Who did you play with at school?”, “What did you play?”, “Where did you sit?”, etc. This strategy leaves the door open for language learning.


Of course, it is important to remember that every child is on his or her own timeline. Some kids sail through these phrases with ease, while others seem to chug along at a slower pace. These strategies are intended to empower parents to be proactive with their child’s language development. If you feel your child ‘s speech and language skills are not where they should be, a pediatric speech language-pathologist can perform an assessment, and advise whether or not therapy might be beneficial.



Happy chatting!

-Elizabeth Clark McKenzie, MS, CCC-SLP

Yoga for Children

OD2SUR0.jpgYoga Basics

People ask me how many yoga classes are necessary before benefits are experienced. Rarely, do they believe me when I answer: “One.” Positive effects of a good yoga class are felt during and after that very first class. There is a style of yoga for everyone – truly! Check out a few possibilities:

  • Power yoga and Ashtanga flow classes for those who need to move
  • Integral yoga and Viniyoga for more classical focus, with a combination of movement, breathing and rest
  • Big Yoga and Curvy Yoga for those who feel that their body types do not align with typical yoga clothing ads
  • Yin yoga with emphasis on holding supported poses to allow for deep work within connective tissue
  • Restorative yoga for anyone who would enjoy being propped in poses with pillows and blankets (very nurturing and healing)
  • Meditation classes
  • And even yoga classes for deep relaxation.

There are programs that provide yoga to people in corporate office settings, the military, in prisons, to those who have cardiac issues or diabetes, and even classes such as Chair yoga and Laugh-A-Yoga. See? Yoga is for all ages, all health conditions and all body types. There are Pre-Natal yoga classes, so why shouldn’t there be yoga for children? Children are people too!

Yoga for the Special Child was the first teacher training course that I attended, with emphasis on connection with each and every child, allowing each child to find their own inner strengths and their own inner calm. That IS the goal of yoga – to connect with that inner joy that resides in all of us. Children are still in that joyous, playful state. Yoga is perfect for children. Sonia Sumar wrote to parents in the forward of her book, Yoga for the Special Child: “By letting go of our fears and negativity, and learning to see the best in ourselves and others, we can provide a powerful impetus for positive change. It is through this ability to go beyond pre-conceived notions and external appearances that we can transform our lives and those of our children.”

Why Yoga?

Yoga is a science that provides each person with ways to experience strength in the body and in the mind, with inner peace and resilience, considered the birthright of everyone. The pretzel-like poses that most people associate with yoga do exist, but are not the primary focus of most classical yoga traditions. Children’s yoga can incorporate moving, singing, jumping, laughing, story-telling, games, art activities and rest time. Kids are allowed to experience fun and joy in yoga classes, and to learn that those great feelings come from within.

Children today live in a world where vast amounts of information bombard their vision, hearing and social observations every day and all day. Currently, children are often taught to rely on this external information, to believe that what is seen on TV, videogames and in social media is what is real and what is important. So much comes to children and adults from electronic devices and yet, a big buzz phrase in schools and therapy sessions right now is self-regulation. All of that external noise distracts us from accessing our own inner strengths and resources. Doesn’t every parent, teacher and therapist want each child to recognize their own, inner power, their own inner calm?

Yoga practices emphasize movement, breathing, singing and rest. Resting is a vital ingredient, as rest allows the body to assimilate all the good things that have been introduced during the yoga session. We spend so much time instructing children and so much time on the road for appointments and outings, it’s easy to forget that children also need to learn the significant importance of quiet time, of silence, and of rest in between all that activity. Children need to become acquainted with their own true ability for self-regulation and self calming, and that it feels good to be calm and in control. If a child has no experience of that feeling, then how are they going to be able to find that calm when they need it? Anger and bullying could become go-to choices rather than ‘checking in’ to see what would help them to feel ‘just right’ in that moment. Many programs such as the ALERT program, Zones of Regulation and Social Thinking’s Superflex enable children to establish useful resources when they feel they are headed out of control. Yoga techniques can fit right in alongside those proven methods, and often, are integral components of such self-regulation tools.

Yoga, Bullying, and the Schools

Have you heard that some schools are now having wonderful decreases in bullying and disruptive behaviors in the classroom, along with increases in academic performance by altering their approach to problem behaviors? Instead of being sent to the principal’s office or to receive some form of negative reinforcement, the student goes to a quiet room where an adult guides them in mindfulness activities or yoga techniques. Positive outcomes can arise from positive, supportive approaches with students who act out in the classroom. Once the child experiences that feeling of calm self-control, they are more likely to know how to return to that state when needed. Improvements in sleep habits, food choices and activity level are often associated with regular participation in yoga and mindfulness practices.


  • Yoga for children provides opportunities to stretch and strengthen muscles, to improve breath support, and to foster a calm, focused mind.  Numerous research studies point out the benefits of yoga practices within schools and homes. And yes, yoga for children even has its own National Kids Yoga Conference every fall in DC, where leaders in children’s yoga from around the world meet to present latest trends and to foster continued growth in this valuable area of yoga practice.
  • The Calming Kids Yoga website offers a beautiful video clip of a child describing how “checking in” helps her to find calm during her day.
  • Yoga 4 Classrooms offers a list of research studies that detail numerous benefits of yoga and mindfulness practices for children and teens.
  • Mindful Healthy Life is a resource for those living in the DC metropolitan area, offering a calendar of activities and information focusing on yoga and positive approaches to day-to-day life.

Resources abound for yoga for children. There are numerous books, videos and apps for yoga poses, breathing and meditation. Yoga has been around for thousands of years and in America, it is IN right now!


  1. Mountain Pose – the standing rest pose. Used in yoga classes as a break or intermediary pose during standing poses, I also like to call it the “ready” pose. Stand with feet solidly on the ground, spine upright, shoulders ‘back and down,’ arms relaxed at the sides of the body, ears aligned with shoulders, hips and feet, eyes directed forward. Notice the calm energy throughout the body. Outside of yoga class, this is a great pose for children and adults to use when standing in line at the grocery store. In this pose, you are a mountain. Your physical presence indicates readiness and calm strength.
  2. Tree – great for balance and focus. While standing, gently shift the weight onto one foot, feeling the stability throughout that supporting foot, ankle, knee and hip. Hold the eye gaze on a non-moving point/object directly in front of you. When ready, lift the other foot and place the sole of that foot on top of the standing foot or against the inner ankle or leg. Some prefer to place foot within the hip crease of the standing leg. Stand upright with hands at the hips, the heart, or raised above the head. If desired, you can steady the body by placing one fingertip on the wall. Hold for a few seconds and repeat on the other side.
  3. Table – Wake up the shoulders, wrists, hips and knees, and expand the chest to become a table. From a seated position on the floor with knees bent and feet in front, place the palms alongside the hips, fingers pointing toward feet, if comfortable (re-position hands if that’s not comfy!). Breathe in and press into the feet and hands while raising the hips and straightening the elbows, creating a nice flat surface in the belly and chest regions. Keep the neck in line with the torso, eyes gazing at the ceiling. Breathe a few comfortable breaths. Have someone place a toy or beanbag on the belly and hold steady, keeping the hips and shoulders in line and the heart open. Breathe out as you lower your seat toward the floor. Rest.
  4. Child’s Pose – Take a break from it all. Sit on the floor on the heels and gently fold the torso over the thighs, resting the top of the forehead on the floor or on a pillow, and allowing the arms to come alongside the legs/body, with the tops of the hands resting on the floor, behind the hips. Exhale and let gravity be your friend, sinking deeper into this resting pose. Turn off all the noise for a bit.
  5. Elephant Twist – In standing or sitting, with arms relaxed at the sides, take an inhale, then exhale and twist the torso toward the right, allowing the arms to flop out and around the body, like elephant’s ears. Inhale back to center, and exhale to the left, allowing the body to twist, the arms to flop toward the left and the face to look left. Inhale back to center and repeat a few more times, allowing the body to reap the benefits of this cleansing and energizing pose. If you’d like, add a happy song to match the movement.
  6. Lion – This is a mood-changer! Beware: it leads to laughter! Sit on the feet/heels on the floor, if comfortable, or in a chair, and stretch the fingers out away from you, with hands on the knees. Take a big breath in and then… exhale fully while making a roar and sticking out the tongue, stretching out the fingers (claws) and opening the eyes as widely as they can go! Sit back upright. Take a regular breath. Then repeat a time or two! Hold on to your smile.
  7. Do Nothing Doll – the rest pose when positioned on the floor in yoga classes and when in yoga nidra. This has been described as the most difficult yoga pose. Even though it involves lying on the back while on the floor, with eyes closed, many of us active people today find it difficult to remain still and to enjoy silence. Yoga cards made by Imaginazium call this pose Do Nothing Doll, as a doll has no thoughts! You can begin this practice simply by closing the eyes and enjoying the quiet. Taking this rest is re-energizing for the body and mind.
  8. Belly Breathing – Ah, taking a nice deep breath is calming and organizing – we all know that! Throughout the day our breathing tends to become shallow, tight and focused high in the chest. Many children keep their breathing in the upper chest region, which is associated with the fight or flight state of being, with stress and anxiety. Remember how we are told to take a deep breath and count to 10 when we are upset? Belly breathing allows us to take a full, deep breath that begins by relaxing the belly, letting it expand as we breathe in. This enables the diaphragm to move fully, allowing the lungs to fill more completely. Begin with a nice exhale. Take a full belly breath in and then, feel the belly pulling back in toward the spine on the full exhale. Try belly breathing for awhile. Then, try it with a count: 1-2-3 on the inhale and 1-2-3 on the exhale. For deeper relaxation, try 1-2-3 on the inhale and 1-2-3-4-5-6 on the long, slow, complete exhale.

OK! Having fun with yoga?

Kids Gotta Move!

Children want to explore the fullness of their muscle power, their thinking skills and their creativity. Yoga for children makes sense and it works – whether the child prefers solitary, parallel, or cooperative play. Yoga requires no extra equipment and minimal space. Occupational therapists and speech therapists understand that children perform best when they are motivated and engaged in an activity, and also, that novelty encourages attention and learning. Yoga techniques offer fresh and varied opportunities for such novelty and enticement, while providing a solid foundation for each child’s motor control skill development, self-regulation and social connectedness. As a former occupational therapist, I have always found that the yoga practices of movement, breathing and song form a perfect fit with OT goals geared toward purposeful living and quality of life. I believe that if every child practices yoga, their generation and the generations that follow will experience a great deal more peace and positivity than we now know in the world…and yoga for children is growing and growing…such a dream may become reality!

– Gina Kane, MSOT, CYT

Gina worked as a pediatric occupational therapist from 1983 to 2015, most of those years serving as the OT Director at Skill Builders. Her love for yoga began in 1995, with numerous yoga teacher trainings to follow, including: Yoga for the Special Child, Integral Yoga (Levels I and II), Calming Kids Yoga and certification in Structural Yoga Therapy.  In 2016, Gina and Dee Marie of Calming Kids Yoga, co-authored a pocket-sized booklet, Finding Calm in a Moment. Her passion for children’s yoga includes a strong belief in the importance of breathing and mindful meditation practices, as all children deserve to know that they can find their own contentment and peace.

Photo: Created by Teksomolika – Freepik.com

“Fun Facts” About Early Development: Mothering with an Occupational Therapy Perspective

tummy timeThe Low-Down on Tummy Time

Background: While decreasing the number of SIDS cases, the introduction of the “Back-To-Sleep Campaign” also led to an increased number of babies with flat spots on the backs of their heads and delayed motor skills due to the fact that parents were fearful of ever placing babies on their bellies. Therefore, regular “tummy time” is now recommended for infants when they are awake and in the care of an adult.

  • Significance of Tummy Time to Early Development:
    • Improved trunk stability, limb coordination, and head control
    • Necessary for acquisition of motor skills – rolling, sitting, crawling, walking
  • Significance of Tummy Time to Later Development:
    • The weight-bearing positions (pushing up on arms and later crawling) facilitate through Tummy Time are critical to future hand skills

Implications and Implementation

1. Start Early: newborns can be placed on their tummies against your chest until you feel more comfortable lying them on a blanket or play mat. If you wait too long to introduce the belly-down position, they may resist because it feels strange to them.

2. Incorporate into Schedule: aim for several 5-10 minute sessions each day. You can enlist the help of your spouse or other caregivers as well. If you each remember to make time for “tummy time” once a day, your child will get at least two sessions each day.

3. Troubleshooting: if your child does not like the position, try propping them up with rolled towels or blankets under their chests. Slowly decrease this support as they get stronger. You can entertain/distract your child with toys, mirrors, and your own face at their eye level.

Fine Motor Skills – Busy Little Hands

The FUNdamentals: from toddlerhood through the preschool years, building strong shoulders, arms, and hands is the key to future success with fine motor skills, such as writing, drawing, and using tools like utensils and scissors. Make sure your children get to play on playgrounds, squeeze play dough, string beads/use lacing cards, and use tools like tongs, turkey basters, tweezers, and squirt bottles in their play.

Writing: Drawing Tools

  • early drawers ages 2-3: use markers, crayons, etc. that are wide to open up their hands and encourage wrist extension
  • later drawers ages 4-6: use short pieces of chalk/crayons to encourage the desired three-finger grasp (thumb, index finger, and middle finger)

Writing: Drawing Surfaces

  • Drawing, painting, or writing on a vertical surface (i.e. chalkboard or easel) is excellent for young children. This position strengthens the shoulder girdle, encourages better hand position when using tools, and is less taxing for their eyes.
  • Drawing on chalkboards offers additional feedback for young artists because of the resistance of the chalk against the surface of the board. This is also true of using chalk on the sidewalk outside.

Sensory Exposure – Let’s Get Messy!

WHY: It is important for young children to experience a wide variety of textures so that their systems learn to accurately identify and respond to these textures appropriately.

Our High Tech, Low Mess World: While as mothers our lives are made easier by certain products, such as glue dots/sticks, paintbrushes connected to tubes of paints, pumpkins made of foam that can be carved just like the real thing, etc., we need to make some time to allow our children to experience “messy” things.


  • shaving cream in the bathtub
  • play dough
  • cooking/baking together
  • pudding on the highchair tray
  • sandboxes
  • finger paints
  • a bin of rice or beans to hide things in

We’re all busy these days and always looking for a “quick fix” but it’s important to set an appropriate foundation from which to build and contribute to the successful development of our kids!

– Jennifer Laun, OTR/L